Nutrition and Metabolism
His book “metabolis neutrinos”, Smith describes himself as a disciple of Lucidarism. His father, George, was a disciple of Descartes. Smith also made a lot of references to Greek philosophers. He said that they all spoke about the body as an engine. His concept of nutrition and metabolism goes back to Descartes.
Smith maintained that all living things are chemical reactions under the action of certain controlling principles. He thought that a proper balance of these forces produced the entire metabolic process. In a sense he was a pantheist. He denied the existence of a God who worked through an agent to create order in the universe.
Smith’s main point of attack in his book” metabolis neutrinos” was the influence of diet on the chemical reactions that regulate metabolism and development. The results are what is being eaten and the effect which is produced. The digestive system in animals is considered to be a process through which nutrition is absorbed. This is a part of the research carried out by Smith.
According to Smith, we get different nutrition from different parts of the food chain. Therefore, the analysis of nutrition involves determining the metabolic rate or the rate at which food is consumed. This rate is directly proportional to the food demands of an animal. The energy expenditure involved in a variety of metabolic processes is studied. It is found that in space flight the energy expenditure is very high as compared to that on land. This high energy expenditure is due to the high metabolism rate.
Smith, according to his research, has discovered that the reason for this is the extreme cold in orbit. The food available on the moon is very low in calories. It is not possible for astronauts to eat enough food to meet their nutritional needs. Even if astronauts were given only potato, they would not eat enough to meet their needs. They would need to use up all their stored fat in order to support their hibernation and maintain their metabolism and nutrition.
However, the metabolism of plants is very different from that of humans. The main difference between plants and animals in metabolism is found in the food structures. The nourishment provided to plants by the sun is very different from that required by animals. The metabolism of plants is best studied by Richard K. Bourland, PhD, Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
The metabolic processes involved in respiration include diffusion, transport, metabolic reactions and aerobic metabolism. Diffusion is the process by which the nutrients are transported from upper to lower compartments of the cell. Transport is the movement of nutrients from lower to higher compartments. The catabolic reactions are the changes in compounds of carbon dioxide and water to cause an increase in the level of oxygen in a solution. All these processes are necessary for respiration but there are specific processes which are important in plant metabolism.
The Smith-mith-Smith Smol graphs show a relationship between the variation of C-reactive protein and the metabolic rates in humans. The relationships between metabolic rates and nutrient availability are also seen. Based on this information, we can conclude that the variation of the antioxidant enzymes is necessary in the regulation of the metabolism and that this variation plays a vital role in plant growth and development. However, further studies must be carried out in order to verify these results.
During a space flight, there is a shortage of oxygen. This shortage causes the brain to dehydrate. Many diseases such as dementia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer can also be caused as a result of this dehydration. To solve this problem, scientists have developed new technology to keep the brain hydrated.
A recent study shows that the effects of nutrition and metabolism in space flight are more complicated as there is no chance of repopulation of blood. As a result, the nutritional requirements of astronauts are different from the requirements of a human being on earth. The Smith-mith-Smith graph of carbohydrate and protein metabolism and nitrogen and oxygen utilization shows a very low value as compared to the data given by the NASA space program. This means that even though nutrition and metabolism play a vital role in space flight, it is not nearly as important as bed rest.
Based on the study by NASA, the nutritional needs of astronauts differ largely from those needed on earth, especially as far as proteins are concerned. According to NASA scientists, the ideal way to meet protein requirements during long-term space travel is to set up home diets that are highly reflective of our everyday eating habits. This means that instead of having three big meals a day, astronauts should divide their food into six small meals throughout the day.